Why Mesopotamia was a Civilization.

I really don’t know what I can post at this moment since finals are around the corner so here’s my Social 9 essay. Hope you enjoy.

Many civilizations have come and gone. They have left many types of evidence and innovations that we have continued to use today. One civilization that stood out is Mesopotamia which was actually the first ever civilization. It was a civilization that lasted from 3100 B.C and lasted till about 539 B.C. It was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. They were greatly noted for their developments of the base of 60 mathematics, from which they stem the modern units for measuring time and the 360 degrees of a circle. Also Science as well including astronomy, chemistry, and medicine. They were the ones that introduced and gave us what we call today as farming. Along with all these they gave us something that manages all of society and without this, there would be absolute chaos. Laws, 282 of them, sent upon everyone to obey and live by or consequences would take place.

As we all know now, there are five characteristics needed for a civilization to work. The first one is advanced cities. Mesopotamia started from the beginning of written history around 3100 B.C and lasted till the fall of Babylon in 539 B.C. In between this time period, they created many things such as writing, the wheel, mathematics, plow, calendar, medicine, etc. This was when they realized there’s more to life than just walking around looking for food to eat and just trying to stay alive. After a while of this, they started to realize that religion plays a fact too and that there are many gods for everything and now they have a means to live for something.  Many small establishments were taking place inside the cities since they had just started to realize how much the wheel could do. Trade was booming and the cities were growing along with their populations. Rural establishments of a civilization more than often remain in a state where they are incapable of taking advantage of their knowledge to develop structures and systems upon which they brought continuous development, growth and expansion to their society. But once trade came along as I already mentioned, is started to root and flourish. For the ancient Mesopotamians, cities were the centers of life. The development of cities could have taken place due to environmental conditions. Lack of rainfall might have been the reason for people to organize themselves in an effort to build canals for the irrigation of farmland. Another reason may have been the need for protection on the open plain, which could have led people to gather together to create walled enclaves. Whatever it was, this was the first time in history that humankind put all of its energies towards addressing the needs of a community as a whole.

Next is specialized workers which is really hard to explain because we all know that they had slaves back then and most of their “dirty” work was done by them. Aside from that, they’re were many jobs that we know of a little before and many after Hammurabi’s time. Kings and Priests were one of the highest jobs someone could do and they were very respected for it. Other jobs for the people between the two rivers would be scribes and tutors which were considered a high class job. Lower class jobs included musicians, builders, merchants, farmers, and traders. In my opinion, farmers would have been one of the higher jobs because that’s what we normally think of when we hear Mesopotamia. They were known to be great farmers and knew how to build the levee system to irrigate their crops and control the flood water which was brilliant. Women farmed and cooked the food while the men hunted for the food. Later when advancements took place, they expanded their jobs to over a dozen different options. For example, they had people have a designated job to write their language, which was cuneiform. But hunting ended after domestication and harvesting was discovered and plows and everything else was slowly coming along.

Complex institutions are more commonly found among developed people groups. To be considered a complex institution, a society must have specialization of labor and a ruling hierarchy wherein the leaders are treated and regarded differently from the common people and that’s exactly how places in Mesopotamia were ruled. They had city states which acted as an independent country with their own laws, military, and culture. There the priests and rulers appealed to the gods for the well-being of the city states. The also had kings but the highest place was at the temple of the ziggurat. That’s were the god/gods lived and that was the highest position. Gods assigned kings and the position was passed down the family generation after the other. Mesopotamia was among the first places where humans gathered to live in large cities. This led to a number of new problems, such as how to provide food to everyone, how to defend against enemies, and how to determine who gives the orders. In small villages, everyone grew crops or fished, everyone fought marauders and the leader was chosen more or less democratically or by heredity. In cities, it proved more effective to have a king who ran a bureaucracy of skilled administrators. The most complex of Mesopotamia’s institutions was probably Hammurabi’s written legal code. This is what changed everything. Many laws were passed and are used today or changed to fit how society works today but all in all, he knew how to put consequences on illegal actions with the eye for an eye idea.

Record keeping was also created by the Mesopotamians. They created writing over five thousand years ago to record and communicate important information so it wouldn’t have to be memorized and forgotten by the time they reached the destination of where they needed to drop the message off at. The earliest writing was based on pictograms. Pictograms were used to communicate basic information about crops and taxes. Over time, the need for writing changed and the signs developed into a script we call cuneiform. Over thousands of years, Mesopotamian scribes recorded daily events, trade, astronomy, and literature on clay tablets. Cuneiform was used by people to write several different languages. The invention of writing was the dawn of the information revolution. This technological advance allowed news and ideas to be carried to distant places without having to rely on a messenger’s memory. Like all inventions, writing emerged because there was a need for it. Eventually, cuneiform script was used to produce some of the greatest literary works in recorded history. Now because of their invention of writing, we are in school today using the same thing from five thousand years ago which is incredible.

Another thing that stands out about the Mesopotamian people is their improved technology. They had developed almost all the techniques that formed the basis of civilized life before the industrial revolution: architecture, transport, metalworking, carpentry, pottery, glass- making, textile manufacture and leather-working as well as many processes associated with farming and food preparation. Other Mesopotamian places in the south received lots of rain and they created levees and canal controls which helped move the flood water where they wanted it to go and help their plants. This could have opened up new jobs along the lines of water management which could also serve as newer technology. Mesopotamians also traded their surplus of food for metals from neighboring places to weld weapons used to fight away foes. They solved problems using organization. To provide water, they dug irrigation ditches that carried river water to their fields and allowed them to produce a surplus of crops. The Sumerians traded their grain, cloth, and crafted tools with the peoples of the mountains and the desert. In exchange, they received raw materials such as stone, wood, and metal which was later used to create weapons. They also revolutionized transportation around 3500 BC by inventing the wheel and were among the first to harness the wind as an energy source by using the sail.

In conclusion, I strongly believe Mesopotamia was a civilization, the first actually, to meet all the requirements we look to as a civilization today. They had an economic structure which put Gods above all. They had common sense and valued some item more than others and used trades as a means to find their way to getting resources that were scarce in their area or could not be reached. They used art and intellect to express themselves and communicate with people through poetry, music, and dance. Political system was based on hierarchy but they still had a way of controlling what’s happening through the kings and priests. Other things that prove they were a civilization are that they had a religious structure and believed in 3000 gods, seven main ones being the Earth God, Sun God, Sky God, Moon Go, Wind Go, Fresh Water God, and the Salt Water God. They also had a written language and they invented cuneiform. Most of all, they had cities that housed more than 5000 people and right then you know, they were growing at tremendous speeds whether it be physically or with their technology. They were on a rise and no one could stop them. Another thing is that they met the eight elements needed to be recognized. They had families, laws, governments, education, religion, geography, art, technology, and an economy. They were a civilization that developed systems and structures to govern themselves and grew from that point and they made changes that affected us and that’s why I think Mesopotamia was indeed a civilization.

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Coding

What is it?

 You’ve seen the craze for learning code. But what exactly is coding? Coding is what makes it possible for us to create computer software, apps and websites. Your browser, your OS, the apps on your phone, Facebook, and this website – they’re all made with code.

Photo Credit: Plymouth Libraries Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Plymouth Libraries Flickr via Compfight cc

Benefits of learning about coding?

Coding empowers you to do many things you wouldn’t otherwise be able to do. These things include hand-crafting your own websites, becoming a career coder or even starting a technology business. Most importantly, you’ll be able to understand the technology shaping your world.

Photo Credit: Ken B Gray Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Ken B Gray Flickr via Compfight cc

Some extra information.

  • The web is a network of connected computers with websites
  • Three different langues: HTML, CSS and JS
  •   Clients in the computer word: Devices like phones, laptops and tablets
  • DOCTYPE: (appears on the top the page) Signal to the browser that the webpage is written in modern HTML
  • Tag: keywords within a web page that define how the browser should format and display the content
  • There are six levels of headings (h1 to h6). <h1> is the most important and <h6> is the least
  •   You can add a paragraph with the  <p> tag
  • Every tag except for the <br> (break) tag needs a closing tag which is written with a / in the tag </p>
  • To emphasize something you can use the <em>  tag and to bold something you can use the <strong> tag
  •   There are two types of lists: <ul> (un ordered list) and <ol> (ordered list), to add items into our list you use the <li> (list)
  • To add an image you need to use the <img> (image) tag. there is also additional information needed with this:  <img src=” add the url”  alt=”discribe image ”  width=” add a number ” height=” add a number “>

Extra information from Khan Academy.

 

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Facts About Pakistan

As you might know, I have a Pakistani background even though I was born in Canada. Here are some facts about Pakistan! Enjoy.

  • The name Pakistan, Pak (pure) and stan (land) means ‘land of the pure’ in the Persian and Urdu language.
Photo Credit: maaddin Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: maaddin Flickr via Compfight cc

  • Pakistan’s land covers some 796,095 km² (307,374 mi²) about the combined land area of France and the United Kingdom.
stock-photo-two-table-flag-partnership-united-kingdom-and-france-207141925
  • Pakistan shares a land border with Afghanistan, China, India and Iran.
Photo Credit: yooperann Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: yooperann Flickr via Compfight cc

  • The official currency of Pakistan is the Pakistani rupee.
stock-photo-pakistani-currency-banknote-with-coins-510509746
  • The national drink of Pakistan is Sugarcane juice, called “roh” the juice is usually only sold by roadside vendors throughout the country.
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  • Cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan.
Photo Credit: Myrialejean Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Myrialejean Flickr via Compfight cc

  • Pakistan’s national sport is field hockey.
Photo Credit: K.M. Klemencic Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: K.M. Klemencic Flickr via Compfight cc

  • The national language of Pakistan is Urdu
  • Pakistan contains the world’s second highest mountain, K2 at 8611 m (28,251 ft).
  • Pakistan was originally made up of East and West areas split either side of India.

 

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He Replied!

For our ELA9 class, we are doing this thing were we read 2 given books; The Maestro, and Dust and we have to do a project and essay on them. My group was assigned the part of reaching out to the authors and asking questions which we could later on present to the class. I reached out to Arthur Slade,

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here is what he had to say:

He started off with a warm welcome,

“Dear Hayyam,

It’s so great to hear from you. I think I may have spoken to students from the Huda School a few years ago. They were a wonderful group.”

Our first question was what anyone would ask, do you have any personal connections to the book and how long did it take you to write?

“Thanks for the questions. Dust does have a personal connection in that I was raised in SW Saskatchewan and grew up near a small town, so the book is partly about what it’s like to grow up in that part of the province. Although, of course, I was growing up in the 80s not the 30s! The book took me about a year to write. Which is about how long all of my books take on average.”

Question- Why did you start writing and how many incomplete books do you have?

“I started writing because I’ve always been creative and I loved reading so it seemed a natural step to write a book. Of course it too me years to figure out how to do it properly! I have at least six incomplete books.”

Question- Why did you choose butterflies to represent a main part of the book other than something else?

“I chose butterflies because I liked the idea of how colourful they are in comparison to the grey, dusty world of the dirty thirties.”

The email was ended off with the following. Check him out!

“Great to hear from you. Thanks for sending me a note!

All the best,
Art
____________________

Arthur Slade
http://www.arthurslade.com
Saskatoon, Canada
art@arthurslade.com
Join my hilarious newsletter here
(and get a free book).”

Check out my groups blogs too!

Areeba Nasir

Fatima Rizwan

Shumaiem Shabir

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Facts About Canada

As you might know now if you have read my About Me post, I was born and raised and still reside in Canada. Here’s some facts about my country!

Canada is the second largest country in the world, right after Russia.

Pale blue dot. The planet Earth globe at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, Illinois. Made with a Sony Rx1rii. For more go to www.elviskennedy.com

Pale blue dot. The planet Earth globe at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, Illinois. Made with a Sony Rx1rii. For more go to http://www.elviskennedy.com

Canada is the World’s Most Educated Country: over half its residents have college degrees.

Photo Credit: Lower Columbia College Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Lower Columbia College Flickr via Compfight cc

Canada’s lowest recorded temperature was -81.4 degrees Fahrenheit (-63 C) in 1947.

Photo Credit: Mark Dumont Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Mark Dumont Flickr via Compfight cc

Canada has more lakes than the rest of the world’s lakes combined.

If you like my pictures check out my gallery at http://www.pixael.com/en/pictures

You can follow me on
https://www.facebook.com/giuseppemilophoto
https://twitter.com/pixael_com
https://instagram.com/pixael/

If you like my pictures check out my gallery at http://www.pixael.com/en/pictures

You can follow me on
https://www.facebook.com/giuseppemilophoto
https://twitter.com/pixael_com
https://instagram.com/pixael/

Licence plates in the Canadian Northwest Territories are shaped like polar bears.

Every Christmas, 1 million letters are addressed to Santa Clause at his own postal code:“H0H 0H0, North Pole, Canada.”

The Mall of America is owned by Canadians.

Canada’s official phone number is 1-800-O-CANADA.

Americans have invaded Canada twice, in 1775 and 1812. They lost both times.

In Canada, MexicoIndiaRussia and Israel, bank notes have Braille-like markings on them for the blind.

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Supreme; what is it?

Supreme is a skateboarding/designer brand based out of New York City. It was established in April 1994 and is a go to brand for many re sellers as well as people who like to flex. Supreme brand caters to many enthusiasts of skateboarding as well as along with Hip Hop and Rock cultures, most of all to youth. Supreme creates clothing, accessories, skateboards as well as many other valuables. The retail price for many of these is very affordable but usually after re sellers put them up, prices inflate to about 6-25 times as much.

 

Supreme has been a very fast growing company and has a different way of producing and selling it’s items. Supreme is the incredibly-well kept secret of cool kids. What started as a skate brand, has now become the leader of street wear, selling everything from hats and shirts to crowbars and lighters. Year after year, Supreme is voted as one of the best street wear brands year by publications like GQ and Complex.

Unlike the Nike’s and Ralph Lauren’s of the world, Supreme has never gone commercial and has never been sold in a big box retailer. Since they’ve avoided becoming a sell out, their products always sell out.

Their business model is defined by simple economics, in which demand outweighs supply — significantly. As demand for Supreme increases, the supply becomes more valuable. However, the supply never increases to meet the demand. For a reason.

While other brands re-stock products if they sell well, Supreme never re-stocks anything. That means if you missed out on a new release, you’re not going to be able to walk into Supreme next month and expect it to be sitting on the shelf. This is the true definition of limited edition.

Limited edition only matters when demand outweighs supply. The demand for Supreme is so high and the supply is so low that a second market has been created, naturally. While Supreme could increase their supply, they have chosen not to, which has fueled the second-market of re-sellers — people who buy products just to re-sell them for a profit.

Why you should buy Supreme?

Well the truth is, you will probably never buy any merchandise from Supreme or might I say, won’t even get close to.

WARNING- Following Video May Contain Explicit Language

Under Supreme’s current system, buyers can be ‘cart-jacked’; it looks like they’re about to checkout, but someone else has actually purchased the item while they were busy filling in their credit card details.

Supreme is clearly aware that it’s an issue, but apart from some customers being pissed off, it’s not really going to hurt the brand and therefore there’s very little incentive for it to put in measures to prevent it. For a niche brand built off hype, one that made headlines in mainstream media, this is all fuel for the fire.

Personal Opinion

I have owned Supreme items and I can speak on this myself. I have never wasted my time waiting in line for anything, I can be patient enough to find it later on online or just get someone to re-sell it to me. Anytime I’ve bought Supreme, I have bought it from a re seller and must I say, they make lots as I later ended up selling my items too. I had bought a crew neck which was released for $80.95 but I had bought for $366.00. This shows how much of a inflation is put o to items like these. Supreme has one of its big rival, BAPE, which have a very similar mindset related to Supreme but end up releasing many more items than Supreme.

 

 

In the end, they don’t care about what others think of their brand or how they work it. It all comes down to the hype and attention, but most of all, the money. The company rakes in around $70 million with its release prices but its like a drug cartel, lots of money is made from the re-sell game and many, many more millions come in through it. All in all though, that is what this culture is about.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Math With A Telephone Tree

A telephone tree is used to send messages. The person at the top calls 2 people. Each person calls 2 more people. Suppose it takes 1 min to call someone. A message is relayed until the bottom row of the tree has 256 people. How long did this take? How do you know?

There are 8 levels in the calling tree.

Every time one person calls, that many more people call the next people down the row.

First row- 1 + 1 = 2

Second row- 2 + 2 = 4

Third row- 4 + 4 = 8

Fourth- 8 + 8 = 16

Fifth- 16 + 16 = 32

Sixth- 32 + 32 = 64

Seventh- 64 + 64 = 128

Eighth- 128 + 128 = 256

Basically, it will take 16 minutes since we are adding them twice to one another.

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Connecting With People Around The World

In the past couple days, we have been doing activities from the Student Blogging Challenge and have been trying to connect with students all around the world! Just yesterday we had to comment on three blogs that we felt were interesting to us. The first blog I chose was about Donald Trump. I think I should have commented on it because first off, I’m Muslim and his victory has lots to do with what could potentially happen to me if I was there in America at this time. He wants to ban a whole religion from the U.S, that is insane! Another reason is because we are probably going to discuss a lot about it in class now because he’s a president and that’s a big job and decisions he makes will affect Canada as well. He is considered a sexist, racist, and homophobic. He is considered the next worst thing that has happened to America. Who knows, what if he turns out to be something good. America has been sleeping from all the sickness. Trump and his remarks woke everyone up and whatever he does next might as well. I think many people didn’t vote because everyone thought Obama was handling everything swell; economies good, we are getting what we want, everything’s great. Trump has shown everyone sides of stuff no one wanted to hear, it was time America woke up. In my opinion, Bernie would be the best but he unfortunately didn’t make it that far, guess we have to wait and see what happens.

 

The next blog I chose was debating whether junk food is good or bad. I commented saying its bad but I asked a question and haven’t gotten  response yet. I asked “I’m a skinny guy and I eat way more than my friends and its, most of the time, junk food. I never get fat though. I don’t workout or anything but I stay skinny. Should I stop eating it too?” Why I chose this? Well I’m a freshmen and it’s the first time for me at our private school that we get lunch out privileges. Everyone knows that fast food is considered unhealthy, especially the stuff my friends and I order. I wanted to know what Anisha’s thought would be on my question.

Photo Credit: CookieM Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: CookieM Flickr via Compfight cc

The final blog I chose was about soccer. I love soccer and have been playing it since I was about 7. I started off playing ones held by the community and progressed up to UNIDAD, one of the biggest clubs in Canada. The past couple years, I have taken a break to focus on school but plan to start playing with my City Soccer and the Saskatchewan PSL team once again. It would be great to start playing again especially with many new kids and clubs popping up all over Canada with so much talent. I highly suggest taking a look at all of these blogs.

Photo Credit: jamesboyes Flickr via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: jamesboyes Flickr via Compfight cc

Thanks for reading dude.

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Are These The Same?

Take a look at the following expressions, are they equal?

(–2)⁴, (– 2⁴), and –2⁴

(–2)⁴ , I look at it like this;

(-2)(-2)(-2)(-2).

Why? Because the brackets are around the base and the negative sign therefore making the base negative and exponent positive. Since it is multiplied and even amount of times, the answer will be positive.

The answer is 16

(– 2⁴), I look at it like this;

(– 2) (– 2) (– 2) (– 2)(-)

Why? The brackets are once again around the base but this time, also around the exponent. This changes the answer. The exponent is now also negative so when we get 16, we will multiply it with a negative.

The answer is -16

(2)(2)(2)(2)(-1)

Why? This time the bracket is not part of the base. After multiplying 2⁴, you will visualize another multiplication part which is (-)/(-1). It is part of the expression but not part of the base.

The answer is -16

What we have learned? Brackets play an important role in any math question. That is why we have BEDMAS to follow operation roles. The can change the value and also tell which process to do first.

 

Thanks for reading!

 

 

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Stay Where You Are And Then Leave

Couple weeks ago, we had to complete a book report for our English class. Almost a month prior to that, we were reading our chosen book every Friday. I chose the book Stay Where You Are And Then Leave because it sounded cool and the cover was pretty nice too. On top of that, I skimmed through and it didn’t have that many pages. It is a book about a boy, about his father, about memories, and most importantly, about a secret.

It talks about the first days that the war broke out in. There is a young boy named Alfie and his father promised he wouldn’t go away to fight – but he broke that promise the following day. He set off to go join in all the excitement of the recruiting. His wife was mad at him but she knew that he would be back by Christmas. 4 years passed and he still wasn’t home. Throughout this tie, the family received messages from him but after about the first year, those stopped arriving too. Alfies mother is worried that if Alfie finds out that his dad is dead or anything that might get him worried, he might have troubles in school but what she doesnt know is that Alfie dropped out a long time ago and goes out during school times to polish peoples shoes at Kings Cross Station. There he makes as much money as he can while ‘borrowing’, one of his neighbors that got arrested, tools. His mother tells him that his father is on a secret mission for the government. Soon Alfie finds out that his mom was lying and confronts her. How does he know? Couple days before he confronted his mom, a doctor from the army saw Alfie and approached him to get his shoes shined. He had some papers with him and a gust of wind blew them out of his hand. The kind kid Alfie was, he got up and helped the man retrieve his papers. While doing this he read through one and saw his dads named. This got him curious so he read a little more before finding out that hus dad is being held at a hospital close by. His mom had previously told him that George, his dad, is on a secret mission for the government. Alfie is determined to find out where his dad is and sets off the next day on a train. Once he ges there, many surprises occur and to know that you’ll have to read the book.

 

In my honest opinion, the book was actually great and if you have someone that was part of any war, you will surely get a little emotional. It is a young adult history book but John Boyne has made it very easy to read and has put complex and long facts into text so it does not get boring. He also transitions well with the perspectives and makes it simple but with great detail at the same time. I highly recommend this book for anyone that loves history or action and request you to read one of his other top sellers The Boy in the Stripped Pajamas. They are both great books. Thanks for reading!

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